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Spring 2003 · Vol. 32 No. 1 · pp. 86–98 

Influences Upon and Through the Tabor College Choir, 1935-1998

Jonah C. Kliewer

The Tabor College Choir was, and continues to be, perceived as the premier musical ensemble on campus. Upon demand other SATB choral ensembles emerged, such as the Chapel Choir, the Freshman Choir, and the Women’s Choir. These ensembles remained active as long as there were enough students to make them viable. Membership in all of the choral ensembles was subject to audition, but the competition was always for the Tabor College Choir.

During the late forties, one church member remarked, “I would rather listen to the barking of frogs than to the Tabor Choir.”

The music department encouraged but did not strictly supervise the organization of smaller ensembles such as men’s quartets and octets. This was matched by women’s trios, quartets, and triple trios. These groups served in many functions for constituent churches and also to give variety to Tabor Choir programs. They were very popular with students as well as churches, and this ensemble culture remained quite constant until the middle sixties.

There emerged a new genre inspired by the hootenanny era comprised usually of a mixed vocal ensemble of more than four but less than twelve singers. These were invariably accompanied by percussion, guitars, and keyboards. The music followed the pop Christian song style which mimicked the popular secular music of the day. Men’s quartets and octets were revived sporadically, and women’s trios also appeared occasionally. But the musical scene of small vocal ensembles was dominated by these new organizations which varied in size but {87} were distinguished by attractive names: The Commitment, Branches, Forever Free, Harvest Crew, and others. The emphasis on this kind of ensemble has persisted into the new millennium and the men’s quartets and octets together with ladies’ trios are no longer a part of the picture.

CHOIR PURPOSE AND POLICIES

The Tabor College Choir, however, has remained really very constant with regard first of all in purpose, in style of musical performance, in size, and in the performance venues. The purpose of the choir has always been to be the highest and most attractive profile group of Tabor College to the church constituency. It was considered primarily a spiritual ministry and secondarily an aesthetic ministry. The spiritual ministry was held foremost in the preparation and presentation of all concerts. It was always expected that choir members be of exemplary character and behavior. Any breach of the code of propriety witnessed by the constituency always came back to the campus and often required administrative action.

As early as A. E. Janzen’s presidency (1935-42) such a report must have come back to the college, and a directive was given to Prof. Herbert Richert that in the future there was to be (1) no coupling, (2) no lipstick, (3) no hogging the refreshments, and (4) no bad sports (found in letters from Richert’s personal file). Emphasis was placed on being role models. Future tours would be in jeopardy should these guidelines not be followed.

Spiritual formation for the choir itself was also considered important. Preparation for concert tour and preconcert disciplines played a most important role in creating a “spirit” in the choir which bonded them to each other and created a group experience which for many was the most significant feature of four years of college.

The size of the Tabor College Choir depended upon the availability of good singers in all voice parts, and upon the limitations placed by the size and cost of transportation. The size of the choir with few exceptions remained really very close to forty-six voices through sixty years and three directors. It was not uncommon to announce early on in the audition process that only a given number would go on tour, but others would be given the opportunity to sing, partly as back-up singers but also for experience and training.

PERFORMANCE LOCALES

The performance venues were generally Mennonite Brethren churches. Tours were planned so that a cycle of travel would touch all {88} areas every three years: MB Southern District, MB Central District and Canada, and the west coast. For a number of years California was left out of that equation due to regionalization with Fresno Pacific College. After a period of isolation it was felt that choirs from Fresno Pacific should be invited to sing in Tabor country and that Tabor Choirs should be invited to service their alumni and friends on the west coast. There were two years, 1943 and 1944, when tours were not taken. The draft for service during World War II removed so many of the male singers that the choir struggled to present an acceptable program.

During the tenure of Dr. Paul Wohlgemuth the Tabor Choir traveled to other venues for performance. The United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C., in 1966, and the Kansas State Legislature. In the Spring of 1974 the choir traveled to Rumania as cultural exchange guests for a two-week performance tour. Beginning in 1978 the Tabor Choir under the direction of Dr. Jonah C. Kliewer traveled to Europe for performance-study tours. This was repeated for each generation of students under the leadership of both Dr. Clarence Hiebert and Dr. Jonah C. Kliewer. In the early nineties a choir tour was taken to the Soviet Union and two years later to eastern Europe, Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia. These tours were all undertaken during Tabor’s January interterm.

The Tabor Choir together with the Bethel College Choir were chosen to sing in the Kennedy Center for the National Bicentennial in the Summer of 1976. In 1998 the Tabor Choir sang in the Alice Tulley Hall of Lincoln Center in New York in a concert shared with two professional choirs and New York City College.

ORATORIO SOCIETY AND CHORAL WORKS

The Tabor College Oratorio Society was organized even before the Tabor College Choir. The coming of Prof. Herbert C. Richert gave new life to an already successful yearly presentation of A. R. Gaul’s The Holy City. In 1952 Handel’s Messiah was added to the often-performed major works. The next year, 1953, both were performed, this marking the thirty-eighth year of the performance of The Holy City at Tabor. The following year only Messiah was performed and repeated in 1955.

During Richert’s tenure at Tabor it was either Messiah or The Holy City which was performed by the oratorio society. Program copies and the Tabor yearbook are the primary sources for this information, and unfortunately the reporting of the activities of the Oratorio Society became sporadic in succeeding yearbooks. This in no way indicates a decrease in the interest on campus and in the community concerning the performance of extended choral works. {89}

Dr. Paul Wohlgemuth had a new vision for this organization which now not only included the Tabor Choir and other interested students but also community and on several occasions our sister colleges, Bethel and Hesston. His vision was to extend the variety of major choral works to be performed. In his first year Haydn’s Seven Last Words of Christ was sung as well as Messiah. The following school year included the Bach cantata, Christ Lag in Todes Banden, sung with the choir of Mennonite Brethren Bible College of Winnipeg, Manitoba. At Christmas time, the usual time for Messiah, another Bach cantata, Uns Ist ein Kind Geboren, and the Christmas Oratorio by Saint Seans were performed. In the spring of that school year, Elijah by Mendelssohn was performed. The following year (1963), Deutsches Requiem by Brahms was performed together with Bethel College under the direction of Dr. Charles C. Hirt, head of the church music department at the University of Southern California. The following year marked the first performance of Haydn’s Creation at Tabor College.

In the school year of 1967-1968, the Tabor College Music Department joined the Kansas Colleges Cooperative Composer Project, a nationally funded program. Other members included Butler Community College, Dodge City Community College, Friends University, Hutchinson Community College, Kansas City, Kansas Community College, and Emporia State University. This program lost federal funding in the late 1970s and disintegrated, but during its successful run Tabor Choirs were given opportunity to sing in many more large choral-orchestral works such as Carmina Burana by Karl Orff, Balshazzer’s Feast by William Walton, Symphony of Psalms by Igor Stravinsky, and Psalmus Hungaricus by Zoltan Kadaly. One extended a cappella choral work which was performed as part of this project was Peaceable Kingdom by Randall Thompson.

In the 1980s, Tabor College Choir was invited by Maestro Michael Palmer, conductor of the Wichita Symphony, to participate in several extended choral-orchestral works. This included Gustav Mahler’s Symphony #2 and Symphony #8 and also The War Requiem by Benjamin Britten. These opportunities greatly enhanced the yearly choral experience of the Tabor Choir.

CHORAL LITERATURE

The choral literature which occupied most of the time and energy of the Tabor College Choir through sixty years was song length (less than eight minutes) and drew upon works from Renaissance composers to composers of our time. The material was generally taken from the {90} treasuries of church music, but the styles of music were indeed very broad. The intent was to choose the best choral literature from the classics to material written for the present.

Professor Richert from the start adopted a formula for his choral programs. The choral opening was always Christ, We Do All Adore Thee from Dubois’ Seven Last Words of Christ. The program always ended with the Tabor Alma Mater during which all alumni in the audience were inspired to stand. The choral presentation was punctuated by songs from smaller vocal ensembles from the choir such as women’s trio, sextet, or triple trio, and men’s quartet or octet. The choral repertoire always included hymns and gospel songs, most arranged by Richert. Black spirituals were always a favorite part of the program. The Russian choral tradition was always represented as were numbers by contemporary American composers. The Renaissance composer Palestrina appears twice, but titles by the Baroque composers J. S. Bach and Handel occur quite often. Haydn and Mozart pieces are often repeated, and titles by Romantic composers Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Gounod, and Dvorak appear even more often.

By far the most titles in the Tabor College Choir program were by contemporary American composers. Twenty-six composers from the first part of the twentieth century are represented. Nobel Cain, arranger of spirituals, appears fifteen times, T. Tertius Noble (1867-1953) appears nine times, and Will James seven times. Songs of these composers were repeated year after year. The piece most often repeated (ten times) was The Beatitudes by H. R. Evans. The Creation by Richter was repeated seven times. Louis Lewandowski’s Psalm 100 had six repetitions and, of the nine Russian composers represented in Tabor Choir programs, Tkach’s To Thee We Sing was repeated seven times.

HERBERT C. RICHERT

Sixty years of choral music at Tabor College directed by three successive conductors is a remarkable record and would be at any institution. Herbert C. Richert, a graduate of Tabor (1920), began his career of teaching at the college in 1935. He conducted the choir and chaired the music department until 1960 when, upon his invitation, Dr. Paul Wohlgemuth came to direct the choir and also to chair the department. Prof. Richert continued to teach at Tabor until his retirement in 1965.

It is apparent that Richert was influenced by the a cappella choral movement of the twenties and thirties in southern California. There was at that time a heightened awareness of the arts, and colleges encouraged organizing singing ensembles. This phenomena was inspired by several {91} innovative choral conductors in the eastern part of the country. Peter Lutkin founded and toured with the Northwestern University A Cappella Choir in 1906. F. Melius Christiansen founded the St. Olaf College Choir in 1911 and took extensive tours in the twenties. John Finley Williamson founded the Westminster Choir in 1919 and also toured the United States. Publishers saw possibilities for profit and began publishing new, worthwhile music for the choral movement. Concern for choral tone attracted aspiring conductors to workshops in this new field and “how to” books became available.

Richert spent formative years in southern California (1922-29). During this time he served as choir director, first for Glendale Presbyterian Church, and next for the First Brethren Church of Long Beach while studying at Los Angeles Bible Institute (1922-24), California Christian College (1927-28), and the University of Southern California (1928-29). In this environment Richert was exposed to the exploding a cappella choral movement in that region, becoming familiar with many new choral compositions and also with choral composers. This repertoire became the material from which Richert drew for the choral program at Tabor College.

PAUL WOHLGEMUTH

Paul Wohlgemuth, a 1948 graduate of Tabor, taught for fourteen years at the school (1961-74) before resigning to go to Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Dr. Wohlgemuth’s earliest choral concepts were formed by hearing the Tabor College Choir under the direction of Herbert C. Richert. He studied voice with Prof. Richert and sang in the Tabor College Choir for four years. A Master of Music Education from Emporia State Teachers College was finished in 1949, and he went directly to Tabor College for his first appointment to teach music for the next three years. During the summers of 1950 and 1951, Wohlgemuth entered the graduate program in the Church Music Department at the University of Southern California and studied voice with Joseph Klein, a private teacher in Glendale, California.

In 1952 he remained at USC, eventually completing the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in 1956 while additionally teaching part-time at Biola College. That same year Dr. Wohlgemuth also accepted the position as minister of music at Tenth Avenue Baptist Church in Los Angeles where he served until leaving for Tabor in 1960.

The choral programs of the Wohlgemuth choir were not dramatically different than his predecessor and mentor, Prof. Richert. Remaining was a strong presence of hymns and gospel song arrangements, though {92} slightly less than his predecessor. Titles by Russian composers remained but were limited to ten compositions by five composers. Twentieth-century American composers also provided most of the titles, but most were released after 1950. In the Richert programs most titles had generally been early twentieth-century compositions. A keen awareness of the latest choral releases is reflected by the choir programs of Dr. Paul Wohlgemuth.

There is a significantly larger representation of Renaissance and Baroque composers in Wohlgemuth programs. Both had about the same percentage of Spirituals in their programs, but the difference appears in early and recent copyright dates. It should be noted that Richert repeated titles from year to year in far greater numbers than Wohlgemuth. Only two titles, The Eyes of All by Jean Berger and Wohlgemuth’s own arrangement of I Will Sing of My Redeemer, are repeated four times by Wohlgemuth. His opening pieces were usually different and closing pieces were also not repeated from year to year, with the exception of a three-year use of Peter Lutkin’s The Lord Bless You and Keep You.

All the choral literature of both Richert and Wohlgemuth was sacred. Wohlgemuth included a few German texts but sang translations of Latin texts in English. Richert included more German compositions but very few titles appear which were originally in Latin. It is clear that both were sensitive to the language abilities of the constituency and their general but unspoken aversion to languages other than English and German.

JONAH C. KLIEWER

In 1975, Dr. Jonah C. Kliewer came to take Wohlgemuth’s place. His preparation for leading the choral music at Tabor was remarkably similar to that of Dr. Wohlgemuth. He received his first choral impressions from the Tabor Choir, sang in the choir for four years, and received his D.M.A. in Church music from the University of Southern California. He had also followed Dr. Wohlgemuth at Tenth Avenue Baptist Church as minister of music. He came to Tabor after eight years at St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church where he was appointed as the first minister of music charged with organizing and sustaining a graded choir program and providing music for three services each Sunday morning. During this time he was assistant conductor of the Irvine Master Chorale and later conductor for the Laguna Concert Chorale. Both were choral organizations of eighty to one hundred singers who prepared two concerts each year with orchestral accompaniment.

Kliewer’s vision was much like that of his predecessors in that {93} spiritual ministry was most important. He placed more emphasis, however, on a wider variety of church music sung in original language. The material was eight percent in the German language and ten percent in Latin, with a few in African languages. Hymns and gospel song arrangements comprised about one fifth of the program literature, sharing with his predecessors the wish to nurture the hymnic tradition of the church. Early music—Renaissance and Baroque—filled more than ten percent of programming titles. Another concern reflected in Kliewer’s programming was to expose students to the best of the new material emerging from publishers. The choral program was intended to contribute strongly to the liberal arts education.

Wohlgemuth rarely used the same opener from year to year and, according to the printed programs, the Alma Mater was not sung at the end of the program. Unlike Richert, Kliewer opened each yearly program with a different choice, but like Richert, he ended each concert with the Tabor signature. For Richert this was the Tabor College Alma Mater, but for the Kliewer generation it was the Tabor College Hymn, Redeemed of God, Come Let Us Sing. All three directors organized the program structure with two breaks in which small groups out of the choir performed, or in which a meditation was presented and an offering taken. All three usually placed the more cerebral music toward the beginning of the program with spirituals, hymns, and gospel songs in the second half. Drs. Wohlgemuth and Kliewer organized programs thematically to encourage a thoughtful response to the sequence of songs.

CONCORD AMONG CHOIR DIRECTORS

It is noteworthy that the choral sounds of the choirs of this trilogy of conductors were so much alike. Of the vocal teachers listed by Prof. Richert in his vocal education—A. D. Schmutz, C. L. Rowland, J. B. Trowbridge, L. D. Frey, Dr. Arnold H. Wagner, Alexander Grant, and John C. Wilcox—Mr. Wilcox seemed to have the greatest influence. Or, maybe closer to the truth, Wilcox’s approach to voice pedagogy agreed with that of Prof. Richert. Those who heard Richert’s singing in the decade before 1950 remember a full, richly resonant voice. It seemed clear that his vocal posture, a lowered larynx achieved by unobstructed inhalation and a maintained pharyngeal space supported by breath from the region of the diaphragm, was the method he taught and which shaped the same rich sound of his choirs. It is interesting that the only vocal teaching material which Richert kept was from John C. Wilcox vocal seminars.

Dr. Wohlgemuth’s early vocal training under Prof. Richert was the {94} best preparation for studying with Joe Klein in Glendale, California, with whom, incidentally, Richert had sung while in southern California in a summer of chautauqua series. Klein’s approach fleshed out the premises upon which Wilcox’s teachings were based. Added was a greater emphasis on the reflex mechanism set in motion by the proper use of the breath support system. Added also was an emphasis upon a “hands on” method of teaching novices the appropriate vocal postures. Klein was a forceful teacher who had no compunction in challenging any vocal pedagogue in the Los Angeles area to improve upon his system. One of his great strengths was in diagnosing vocal problems and in teaching his students to exercise the same skill.

This approach was passed on to Kliewer in his freshman year at Tabor College. He took voice lessons from Wohlgemuth the summer after his second exposure to the methods of Joe Klein. It was a dramatic revelation in vocal production for Kliewer. High pitches previously delivered with great stress were now easy and fully resonant. This foundation was confirmed by three more years of studying voice with Prof. Richert and two years with Reinhold Schmidt at Kansas University while completing a Master of Arts in Music. Kliewer met Joe Klein through the Choral Conductors Guild (CCG) while pursuing a D.M.A. in church music at the University of Southern California. He taught the principles by which Kliewer shaped choral tone at Tabor College.

Two other choral artists who exerted a profound influence on Kliewer were Howard Swan and Robert Shaw. He first met Swan through the Choral Conductors Guild which at that time was the principle organization in southern California which focused on the disciplines of church music. Swan had built an internationally acclaimed choral program at Occidental College and was often the presenter at CCG meetings. He became a mentor for Kliewer at St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church.

The summer before coming to Tabor College, Kliewer attended a workshop conducted by Robert Shaw. This was the first of several contacts culminating with membership in the Robert Shaw Festival Singers. His strongly held convictions concerning choral tone and how to achieve it were evident in his choral work and often articulated in rehearsal. His method is one of six described by Howard Swan in Choral Conducting: A Symposium, edited by Harold A. Decker and Julius Herford (33). Precise tuning and appropriate shaping of the musical phrase rising out of the text and its meaning were two disciplines which Kliewer attributes to the teaching of Swan and Shaw. {95}

TABOR INFLUENCE UPON THE MB CHURCH

There are five main venues through which Tabor College music has influenced the music of the Mennonite Brethren Church: (1) concerts given by the Tabor College Choir in constituent churches; (2) the ministry of choir alumni in Mennonite Brethren congregations; (3) workshops presented by musicians from Tabor College; (4) the Tabor College Chapel Hour, a radio broadcast produced by Archie Kliewer through the decade of the 1950s; and (5) the editing of hymnals.

Choir Concerts and Alumni

The Tabor College Choir was the model for choral singing and in many instances was instrumental in awakening the choral consciousness of young musicians. The singing style of the Richert choir was a cultural change for the MBs. Early resistance to this style of singing and literature was evident in the remark by one church member during the late forties: “I would rather listen to the barking of frogs than to the Tabor Choir.” The resistance changed to acceptance and then enthusiasm as choir alumni began to become the church choir members and the directors of music in the congregations. Within the space of forty years a dramatic shift occurred in singing style, and church choirs chose a wider variety of challenging music for worship services.

The influence of Tabor music alumni returning to churches to serve as choir directors, singers, and keyboard artists cannot be overestimated. Those who achieved recognition in music composition included Dr. Larry Warkentin and Dwight Elrich. Choral directors who have entered the profession of college teaching and are now being recognized for their success include Dr. Carl Gerbrandt, Dr. Greg Zielke, Dr. Charles Neufeld, and Dr. Brad Vogel. Several of our churches are now also enjoying the skills of Tabor graduates in musical/pastoral areas: Larry Albright at Lincoln Glen in San Jose, California; Bob Plett at Reedley (Calif.) MB; Randy Janzen at the Neighborhood Church in Visalia, California; Darren Rempel at Bethesda MB in Huron, South Dakota; and Dr. Bev Tillman in the First Baptist Church in Salem, Indiana. The richness given to our churches by those skilled on the keyboard and those whose voices have been trained is impossible to measure, but these are gracing the worship services of our constituent churches each Sunday.

Choral Workshops

Herbert C. Richert ministered before radio and television began to exert influence on the tastes and musical choices of church choirs. He traveled through the MB constituency, facilitating musical growth in {96} churches. His work was not limited to the states but extended to the provinces. Dr. Wesley Berg mentions in From Russia with Music (94) that Richert came to Manitoba for a week in 1951 and for a month in 1952. Jacob Hamm, who taught at Immanuel Academy in Reedley, California, in the early fifties, recalls Richert in a workshop in Kitchener, Ontario, in 1949. Hamm, with a men’s quartet, had sung a Stamps-Baxter arrangement to which Richert had responded, “Pass auf” (Be careful). Hamm recalls it as a rebuke of gospel songs used as entertainment.

Dr. Paul Wohlgemuth continued this same ministry even into Canada as reported by Dr. Berg (104). He had prepared tape recordings on issues of church music which were distributed to churches upon request. He also conducted workshops concerning church music in churches of the constituency.

Church music workshops were also one of the ministries of Dr. Kliewer during the twenty-three years he spent at Tabor. The intent of the workshops by Kliewer and his predecessors was to nurture a musical culture in which integrity of text and the best craftsmanship of music was maintained. Awareness was encouraged to discern doctrinal soundness of texts and also to discern and avoid sentimentality leading to inappropriate emphasis on emotion.

Tabor College Chapel Hour

The Tabor College Chapel Hour produced by Archie Kliewer was heard by most Mennonite Brethren homes during the 1950s. The music represented the best of choral literature sung by the Tabor College Choir and the songs and hymns sung by smaller vocal ensembles, including men’s octets, quartets, ladies’ trios, and triple trios. These ensembles were recorded by Archie Kliewer and represent an extraordinary glimpse into the literature and vocal styles of the 1950s.

The Editing of Hymnals

The change from German to English left the Mennonite Brethren singing mostly gospel songs out of Tabernacle Hymns I, II, III, and IV. The three hymnals published specifically for the Mennonite Brethren have reflected the cultural shift described earlier. The Church Hymnal (1953), edited by Herbert C. Richert, kept a rich repertoire of gospel songs with a liberal introduction of hymns. Worship Hymnal (1971), edited by Paul Wohlgemuth, reduced the number of gospel songs and increased the number of hymns. It also included a section of youth songs representing the kind of songs sung in the 1960s. Worship Together (1995), edited by Clarence Hiebert and several Tabor alums, {97} continued the trend to replace the gospel song with contemporary hymns and songs. A specific section for youth was not included in the latter, but many praise choruses were added of the type appealing to the youth culture. Even this was approached cautiously because it was recognized that the youth culture thrives on the “throw-away” songs, the longevity of which do not merit their inclusion in a hymnal.

As a response to this desire among constituency, Sing Alleluia had been published in 1984 as a loose-leaf booklet to be a trial forum for praise choruses. Its use has confirmed the fact that songs of the praise chorus variety have a short life, and new titles have been added to reflect the popularity of the new songs. Most of these praise choruses are modifications of songs made popular by Christian pop groups and deemed appropriate for worship.

CONCLUSION

From the 1940s to the 1960s, the emphasis of Tabor music upon the classical style was generally well received and had high impact upon the Mennonite Brethren Church. From the 1960s to the present, Tabor College music has been maintaining the classical approach to teaching music, while at the same time allowing the praise singing of the youth culture. The result is that within the space of three decades, the songs of worship at Tabor College have moved from hymns directed by music faculty to praise choruses led by student praise teams. This trend is likewise reflected in many of the Mennonite Brethren churches. The change is driven by forces beyond Tabor College and the Mennonite Brethren and seems to pervade the evangelical church.

Another indicator of the college’s waning musical influence is reflected in church periodicals. Christian Leader, for example, featured the choir by picture and itinerary under Richert, and churches reporting the activities of their congregations always reported the presence of the Tabor College Choir. That continued into Wohlgemuth’s tenure, but pictures appeared increasingly less often and churches frequently did not record the presence of the choir in their church news. That trend continued into the Kliewer years. One could accept this as a change in editorial priorities of Christian Leader, but it can also be inferred that this part of Tabor’s ministry was considered less and less important.

Even though Tabor music continues to touch constituent churches with choral concerts and with graduates who have been a part of the music program, it seems to have less influence today in the shaping of the singing and music of the MB church. {98}

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Berg, Wesley. From Russia with Music. Winnipeg, MB: Hyperion, 1985.
  • Darrow, Gerald F. Four Decades of Choral Training. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1975.
  • Decker, Herold A., and Julius Herford, eds. Choral Conducting: A Symposium. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1973.
  • Hillsboro Star Journal, 6 January 1988.
  • Wilcox, John C. Living Voice. New York: Carl Fischer, 1935.
  • Wohlgemuth, Barbara. My Song of Life 1995, from the personal files of Center for Mennonite Brethren Studies, Hillsboro, Kansas.

OTHER SOURCES

  • Annual music program booklets in the Tabor Music Department Library.
  • Choir programs and letters from Herbert C. Richert’s personal file. Center for Mennonite Brethren Studies, Hillsboro, Kansas.
  • Tabor College yearbooks of Richert, Wohlgemuth, and Kliewer years.
  • Who’s Who in American Music.
Jonah C. Kliewer, Professor Emeritus of Music at Tabor College, Hillsboro, Kansas, taught at the school from 1976 to 1998.

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